There is a strong market value associated with high-grade (>65%Fe) iron ores, due to the costs of gangue removal in downstream processes. Moving to green steel processing, specifically the hydrogen direct-reduced ironmaking pathway, the costs of gangue removal could rise substantially, due to the high energy (including lime making) costs of gangue removal in the electric arc furnace (EAF), or, potentially to a lesser extent, in a proposed melter/basic oxygen furnace stage that may replace the EAF. Producing a high (>65%) Fe/low solid contaminant product from most Pilbara fine iron ores is difficult to unfeasible using conventional wet or dry physical beneficiation methods.

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